Monday, December 2, 2019

White Privilege as it Pertains to White and Minority College Students Essay Example For Students

White Privilege as it Pertains to White and Minority College Students Essay â€Å"My (black) Caribbean students, as a whole, tend to perform much better than my African-American students. Well, consider it over the years, and particularly during slavery, the best and brightest blacks in this country were weeded out. I don’t believe that blacks are naturally inferior to whites, however, American blacks are the unfortunate end product of an enforced breeding process that has left them at a mental disadvantage. † Racism is often conceived as the summation of prejudice plus power. This does not have to do so much with the number of people in any group, but their access to ideological and material resources (including arms). In an American university environment, these ‘arms’ may be found in the shape of grades, scholarships and fellowships, the ability of professors to give or withhold positive reinforcement, and the self-images and convictions the students themselves, both white and minority, bring into this setting. We will write a custom essay on White Privilege as it Pertains to White and Minority College Students specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The effects of ‘white privilege’, a little-acknowledged theory that whites enjoy â€Å"an invisible package of unearned assets,† resonate silently throughout the university system, deployed as subtle psychological hand grenades. White privilege is harmful not only to the minorities it relegates to the sidelines, but damaging to the whites who are either active or passive participants in this ideology. Here is my classroom. It is a 100 level sociology course. I am one of two white students in a class of mostly African-American and Caribbean-American students. The other white student and I, and an older African-American woman, are the only students to speak at least once every session. Our professor knows our names and listens attentively when we speak. This (white) professor has made a point of telling the class that she is politically liberal and interested and educated in many minority cultures. Yet, she rolls her eyes at the rough English spoken by one African-American student and glosses over the hesitant comments of others. It would seem, by the students’ tacit and silent acceptance of her behavior, that this is de rigueur, par for the course. These days, a college degree serves as one of the few tickets into a socially and economically comfortable lifestyle. College itself, ideally, should vastly increase the knowledge, skills, and capacity for critical thinking in its students. However, in this racially imbalanced society, college is the culmination of a white-weighted education, and often ignores its own participation in long-standing racial injustices and inequities. Minority students are expected to jump headlong into white standards of behavior, without regard for the unique circumstances that render that expectation difficult, if not impossible, to meet. My schooling gave me no training in seeing myself as an oppressor, as an unfairly advantaged person, or as a participant in a damaged culture. I was taught to see myself as an individual whose moral state depended on her individual moral will. My schooling followed the pattern my colleague Elizabeth Minnich has pointed out: whites are taught to think of their lives as morally neutral, normative, and average, and also ideal, so that when we work to benefit others, this is seen as work which will allow ‘them’ to be more like ‘us’ (McIntosh, p. 1). Today, this country prides itself on the great strides it has taken to promote racial equality and harmony. Many universities have incorporated diversity training as part of the curriculum. History and literature courses celebrating non-white cultures are prevalent in schools. Additionally, many affirmative action admission policies and scholarship programs are available to minority students. There is no denying that efforts have been made to minimize the gap between white and minority advantages. However, amidst these well-intentioned efforts, white privilege continues to shape the experiences of both white and minority students. Consider the following: Since an individual’s self-concept is based upon his experiences and since American society has gone to great lengths to teach the black that he is inferior, it has commonly been accepted that the black has somehow internalized this prevailing valuation and made it his own. The result, according to this formulation, is that the black experiences a deficiency in self-esteem (Baughman, p. 38). This â€Å"prevailing valuation† has a significant impact on the minority student. .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .postImageUrl , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:hover , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:visited , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:active { border:0!important; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:active , .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5 .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u774b9bc4db7a3f2da8153eb3394c17d5:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Syrian Refugee Crisis essayMany minority students have experienced, based on their race, derision, inattentiveness, or inadequate encouragement in both prior school environments and other life experiences. Even those who may not have experienced discrimination directed specifically toward them are aware of the long history of racism in this country and longstanding attitudes and expressions of white supremacy. Minority students are aware that this is not such a free country; ones life is not what one makes it; many doors open for certain people through no virtues of their own. In proportion as my racial group was being made confident, comfortable, and oblivious, other groups were likely being made unconfident, uncomfortable, and alienated. Whiteness protected me from many kinds of hostility, distress, and violence, which I was being subtly trained to visit in turn upon people of color (McIntosh, p. 31). The following list is the result of a study conducted on minority students in math and science classes. It lists various potential factors that can positively and negatively affect the minority’s school performance. Persistence: Those students who are unsuccessful in mathematics and science have not developed the ability to persist. Having the ability to persist in the face of conflict is essentially related to a positive self-concept. Stereotyping: Many teachers, both majority and minority, as well as many minority students tend to stereotype mathematics and science as White male domains. Utility: Minority students are less likely to understand how the study of mathematics and science is applicable to everyday life, as well as valuable to their future schooling and jobs. Influence of Significant Others: Teachers, counselors, parents, and peers have a role in shaping students participation in mathematics and science. Without this guidance, students have a more difficult time achieving in the classroom. Previous Experiences: Minority students tend to perform best when the content is related to their previous experiences; frequently, curriculum does not relate to their experiences. Academic Deficiencies: Achievement test performances by minority students indicate growing competency in basic skills, but weakness in understanding and applying concepts. Language: Limited English-proficient minority students encounter limitation in English-speaking mathematics and science classrooms, and on achievement tests. Misuse of Testing and Test Data: The use of standardized test data to predict achievement and to assess ability is detrimental to minority students. Learning Styles: Instructional strategies frequently do not complement the learning styles of many minority students. Teacher Expectations: Educators often perceive minorities as having inferior ability. This perception translates into an expectation of low achievement, which is communicated to and internalized by the minority student (Internet Source) These factors are not often considered in a university environment. In fact, it may be said, that there is a stigma associated with the idea of instituting programs that address the more profound issues within these social problems. However, it must be realized that the university system in this country is neither removed from nor neutral toward racial concerns. Rather, it is a mainstream institution in this country, founded upon the principles, customs, and history of white Anglo-Saxons. This may be exhibited by something as disturbing as the statement at the top of this document, or by such subtle means as the textbooks that only portray white faces. Again, it is not that there has been no action in resolving this issue, but rather that there are still fundamental imbalances deep within the heart of society that must be made aware of and addressed. On the other hand, the white student’s school performance is not affected by concerns stemming from his or her race. According to Ruth Frankenberg, white culture is viewed by many whites as ‘no culture† (Frankenberg, p. 176). Whiteness is not so much void, but rather acts as the dominant norm. To the white student, whiteness is the normative ideal precisely because it is unrecognized, unacknowledged and therefore unchallenged. Adrienne Rich’s terminology for this tendency to generalize specifically white cultural practices and perceptions of the world as normal is â€Å"white solipsism† (Rich qtd. in Spelman, p. 36). This does not always entail consciously believing that one race is inherently superior to all others; but a â€Å"tunnel?vision which simply does not see nonwhite experience or existence as precious or significant† (Rich qtd. n Spelman, p. 36). One effect of this is the belief that those values held dear by white, and perhaps middle?class people, are of importance to everyone. .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .postImageUrl , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:hover , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:visited , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:active { border:0!important; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:active , .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u1ec611815fb7cb0858d94881897e062b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Masque Of The Red Death EssayIt seems that many people do not understand that their world?view is socially constructed, rather than ‘natural’ or ‘normal. ’ Another important effect is that in the white and larger mainstream society, whites are seen and judged as individuals based on their own merits or shortcomings, while minority individuals are grouped together and are often seen as anonymous extensions of one negatively viewed body. I can go shopping alone most of the time, pretty well assured that I will not be followed or harassed. Whether I use checks, credit cards, or cash, I can count on my skin color not to work against the appearance of financial reliability. I can swear, or dress in second hand clothes, or not answer letters, without having people attribute these choices to the bad morals, the poverty, or the illiteracy of my race† (McIntosh, p. 31) E. Earl Baughman discussed another aspect of racism that may address the heart of the issue. It forces up to consider the possibility that the self-esteem of the average white is also significantly damaged by his experiences in the social structure of which he is a part. In this regard, we suspect that the black often overestimates the degree of self-satisfaction that resides in his white neighbor. Indeed, the very fact that the white man has found it necessary to push the black man down as inferior suggests the operation of a compensatory mechanism, the goal being to reassure the white of his self-worth. (Baughman, p. 42) The significance of this quote is the expression that our society, and its inhabitants, is damaged; that is, at least, according to our own dearly held ideologies: peace, justice, freedom, brotherhood. For people of color, race acts as a filter through which they perceive the world. White people tend not to look at the world through this filter of racial awareness, despite the fact that they also comprise a race. More often than not, white people see those affected by racial oppression as black or other people of color. Yet, it is a sign of privilege to have the freedom not to think about racism or ponder your location in the racial order. But that is a privilege not even whites hold. It is a mistake to assume that challenging racism is solely for the benefit of people of color. Racism also damages whites because it works to keep us separate and distinct from people of color with whom powerful alliances might otherwise be built, alliances operating to our mutual benefit. Division and estrangement between whites and people of color support a system that oppresses the majority of both, for the benefit of relatively few; effectively denying the richness and knowledge we could offer each other.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The story of an hour by kate chopin essays

The story of an hour by kate chopin essays The Story of an Hour: A Brief Analysis What may come to someones mind when it comes talking about of women? What they may think is that they are someone who takes care of the children, cleans the house, cooks good food, or simply saying that she is someone who has a full time job to look after the needs of the family. Moreover, women are the unvoiced life form in the society during the 1800s. On the contrary, people rarely think about the strength of a woman behind their wide range of emotions and sensitivity. Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour reveals that women are capable of expressing strength and independence, which contradicts the societys belief about women during the nineteenth-century. The story took place during the spring season of the nineteenth-century. Chopin mentioned the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life when Mrs. Mallard looked through the window that gave a lucid picture of the spring season. The words railroad and telegram that are used in the story clearly indicates the time frame since these inventions were commonly used during the nineteenth-century. Chopin describes the appearance of Mrs. Mallards face in the story: She was young, with a fair, calm face. Mrs. Mallard is an attractive, admirable, and a simple woman as learned from the Chopins description. There stood facing the open window, a comfortable, roomy chair connotes that she has wealthy-living. Generally, Mrs. Mallard is a refined, elegant woman during the nineteenth-century that belongs to the upper-class society. At the beginning of the story, it was known that Mrs. Mallard was afflicted with a heart trouble, which labeled her as a weak woman physically and emotionally. Her sister, Josephine and her husbands friend Richards couldnt inform her directly that her husband was dead. They are wor...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

GRE Sentence Equivalence Sample Questions

GRE Sentence Equivalence Sample Questions GRE Sentence Equivalence Questions Prepping for the GRE? After you secure the very best GRE prep options for yourself, youd better crack open the book, open up the app, or start chatting with your tutor about the the GRE Verbal section because it is an absolute doozy. It contains three types of questions: text completions, reading comprehension questions, and these sentence equivalence questions that will knock your socks off if youre not careful. Read on for a little bit of the basics about the sentence equivalence questions and try your hand at a few GRE Sentence Equivalence examples so youll feel more comfortable preparing for the GRE Verbal test. GRE Sentence Equivalence Basics When you crack open the GRE Verbal test and get started on one of the two sections, youll encounter these sentence equivalence questions as you go. Each question will consist of the following: 1 sentence of varying length1 blank per sentence6 answers to choose from per each question To answer, youll need to choose  two answer choices  that best fit the meaning of the sentence  AND  make sentences that are alike in meaning. Your choices, therefore, must be synonyms but must  also  make sentences that say the same thing. There will be other words that closely mirror each other, but create sentences dissimilar in meaning and thats where it gets tricky.   GRE Sentence Equivalence Examples Ready to give it a shot? Here are a few examples to get you started. After that, grab a GRE practice test or two from a reputable company and get busy making sure every second of your prep time counts! Instructions: Select the two answer choices that, when used to complete the sentence, fit the meaning of the sentence as a whole and produce completed sentences that are alike in meaning. Question 1 Although the composer quickly gained fame with his last symphony, his legacy is hardly __________ due to the superb works of other, more noticeable musicians of his time like Haydn and Mozart. (A). recognizable(B). indelible(C). prescient(D). interminable(E). memorable(F). articulated Question 1 Explanation Question 2 The vice presidents understanding of the companys broken budgeting system was so _________ that it caused increasing problems every time she got involved in the process of fixing it. (A) degenerate(B) substantial(C) paltry(D) ineffectual(E) estimable(F) limited Question 2 Explanation Question 3 When Roderick was young he _________ ideas of becoming a physician, despite his fathers interminable boasting about Rodericks eventual leadership of the family business. (A) fostered(B) thwarted(C) cultivated(D) proffered(E) aggrandized(F) elucidated Question 3 Explanation Need More GRE Sentence Equivalence Practice? So now youve seen a few examples of GRE sentence equivalence questions. But if youre ready to prepare for the entire test including Writing and Quantitative, check out these GRE prep options to ensure you make the score you really want to achieve.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Global Water Crisis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Global Water Crisis - Essay Example Most of the underdeveloped economies stagger under environment stresses and water thus likely to withstand the worst of global water crisis (Chellaney 17). Chellaney argues that in the contemporary world, water is unvalued and underappreciated, regardless of the latter being essential to sustain livelihoods and life. According to the author, the price of crude oil at international spot price is lower than the retail price of bottled water, and this can result to conflict, considering that unlike oil, there is no substitute for water. Additionally, the author contends that the riparian neighbors in several parts of the world are already waging water wars in diplomatic, economic or political sense hence fuelling series of mutual accusations, aggravating and breeding mistrust, which inhibits broader integration and regional cooperation. Chellaney then highlights of impending dangers such as armed conflict or further inadequacy of already energy production or stretched food if this crisis is given a cold shoulder. Using nontechnical, direct and engaging styles of writing, the author summarizes by analyzing the various linkages of the world between peace and water. To identify these linkages, the author does comprehensive research from policy fields and scientific while offering integrated remedies and holistic pictures in his

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Executive Compensation and Employee Benefits Term Paper

Executive Compensation and Employee Benefits - Term Paper Example A company with a number of products, clear vision and unique ideas stands to lure the most competent candidates in each and every level but to maintain this momentum of better performance, it is imperative that the top executive level secures the best talent. A compensation package which is attractive to ensure these talents are maintained at the top management level of the company since they enjoy significant negotiating power and as such additional incentives up and above the compensation package can be impacting in luring an executive to join an organization. Challenging and unique opportunities do sway employees and thus in addition to an appealing compensation package, employee benefits have been applied so as to supplement it. Employee benefits has been very helpful in enhancing economic security of the employees thus curtailing labor turnover, increasing employees loyalty and improving productivity. Compensation is any kind of remuneration that is received by a person in return for his/her performance of the company's or organizational tasks. There are four common methods of compensation: performance related pay (PRP) such as commission, bonus, time rate and piece rate; fixed basic pay; non-economic benefits such as house, car etc and finally ownership benefits where employees are awarded shares (Reid, 2004). Several factors influence the wage and the salary structure, these include: pressure from trade union, lowest wage rates, existing market rates, supply and demand for a particular job, the employee's qualification and the ability of the organization to pay. Compensation in the form of wages is normally given to a worker while compensation in the form of a salary is normally given to an employee. Executive compensation refers to the way senior executives for the business corporations or firms are paid. Executive compensation comprises of the basic salary, options, shares, b onuses plus additional company benefits (Bagley & Savage, 2006). Forms of Executive compensation There are a number of types of executive compensation which offers numerous performance incentives and tax benefits. They include: Stock options -Refers to the privilege sold by a buyer to a seller that gives the latter a right rather than an obligation either to call(buy) or put(sell) the stock at an agreed price on a particular date or within a specified period (Bagley & Savage, 2006). Stock options ensures the CEOs interests are kept at par with that of shareholders since their value is subject to the price of the stock remaining above the strike price/exercise price (price upon which a stock will be sold or bought upon the exercise of the option) of the option. However stock options are open to abuse through options backdating and excessive risk seeking (Lawrence, 2002). Restricted stock - These are stocks awarded to an executive but can only be sold once a specific conditions are arrived at and it carries a similar value to the stock's market price during time of the grant. Deferred compensation -This is normally applied for taxation purposes and involves postponing compensation up to a certain future date. Executive perks compensation includes travel reimbursements, private jet and extra rewards given to the executives. Retirement packages awarded to executives following their retirement from the organization; this is open to abuse as corrupt executives can attach "golden

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Patterns and trends in health among society Essay Example for Free

Patterns and trends in health among society Essay Gender Women’s life expectancy is higher than men; women typically live five years longer than men (Stretch and Whitehouse 2012. In 2002, life expectancy at birth for females born in UK was 81 years, compared with 76 years for males. This contrasts with 49 and 45 years respectively at the turn of the last century in 1901(Sikin, L undated). Another reason why women live longer could be because men tend to smoke and drink more alcohol than women in general. Men also take more risk than women; Women have less chance in getting cardiovascular disease, like heart attack and stroke. Women usually develop these problems usually in their 70s and 80s, about 10 years later than men, who develop them in their 50s and 60s (Blue, L 2008). Another reason why women live longer could be because men in their late teens and 20s go through something called ‘’testosterone’’ (Blue, L 2008). Testosterone is when the level of hormones is high and changeable, this can create dangerous behaviors. For e.g. they may not wear seatbelts; they drink alcohol and they can become aggressive. These kinds of behaviors can lead to higher death rates for males. Men also take risk more than women; expert claims that men take more risk, making them twice as adventurous and carefree than female. However in 2011 bps state that woman often takes more risk than men. Psychological Science a journal of the Association for Psychological Science has shown the reality of what type of person is prone to taking chances is more complicated than first thought. The study found that despite stereotypes, females sometimes take more risks than men and adolescents can be as  cool-headed as any other demographic. (3). they have found out that men are prone to financial gambles and women often take social risks. Another reason why women life expectancy is higher because men tend to do dangerous sports such as rugby, surfing, motorcycle racing and skiing. In 2002 statistic said that females born in the UK live up to 81 years, whereas males live up to 76 years. This contrast with 49 and 45 years respectively at the turn of the last century in 1901 (2). This is a table is from 2007-2009 about life expectancy in different parts of the UK. In the UK, males and females expect to spend more than 80 per cent of their lives in very good health or general health from birth. Falling to around 57 per cent at the age of 65 (1). In recent years males are taking care of their health more than females. However in today’s society it is believed that female’s health has improved more than males. Social class Statistic produced a biases picture. They believe that people in the lowest social class work in dangerous industries. This causes higher rates of illness. Therefore it is not the class but age and employment of people that causes high levels of illness and lower life expectancy. / Ethnicity All ethnic minorities have higher rates of still births, perinatal moralities (death within 1 week), and neo-natal mortality (within 1 month). Ethnicity backgrounds tend to have shorter life expectancy. Children from Asian families have higher rates of getting rickets. Only Afro-Caribbeans and Pakistanis continue to show excess mortality throughout infancy (Whitehead 1992). Afro-carribeans more likely to be admitted to mental health units, men more so than women and more likely to be sectioned. Once there they are more likely to receive harsh treatment e.g.- electro-shock therapy, anti psychotics. Age Geographical location The black report Internet Blue, L (2008) Why Do Women Live Longer Than Men [online] Available at:,8599,1827162,00.html Sikin, L (undated) Life expectancy [online] Available at: The telegraph (2012) Men twice as likely to take risks [online] Available at:

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Human Animal Essay -- Sociology

Several things make humans different from animals. These include burying of the dead by humans out of respect, humans evolving to stop relying primarily on instinct, humans being aware of themselves, the feeling of wrong and right sense, as well as evil and moral, complex languages and methods of communication by humans, human use of the brain in exceedingly complex ways compared to animals, and human ability to advance technology. The premise of this paper is to delve into the consequences of these differences. The paper will study moral behaviour, human uniqueness, and consciousness or lack of consciousness. The first consequence of the difference between humans and animals is human uniqueness (Levinas, 2004 p48). Any attempt to answer the question of what humanness is should involve a study of the results of seeing people as lacking or having humanness. Consequences of this question include the dehumanization of groups that are despised and the excuse making to explain ones failings as being only human. This question reveals that there exist two direct consequences of humanness: human nature and human uniqueness (Jeeves, 2011 p32). Human nature refers to the attributes seen as typically, essentially, and fundamentally human. Human uniqueness, on the other hand, refers to those attributes that distinguish an animal from a human being. Differences that lead to human uniqueness are a large brain and an erect posture (Levinas, 2004 p49). Human is the only species of vertebrates that possess an erect posture and a gait that is bipedal. While birds are also bipedal, their backbone stands horizontally rather than vertically with the exception of the penguin. Despite kangaroos being bipedal, they do not possess an erect posture, a... ...uences are freely observable, and are what make a human be referred to as so. References Cavalieri, Paola. The Animal Debate: A Reexamination† in In Defense of Animals: The Second . London: Blackwell Publishers,, 2006. Descartes, Rene. From the Letters of 1646 and 1649† in Linda Kalof and Amy Fitzgerald Eds. . Oxford: Berg, 2007. Jeeves, Malcolm A. Rethinking human nature : a multidisciplinary approach. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Pub. Co, 2011. Johnson, Clarence Sholà ©. Cornel West and Philosophy. London: Routledge,, 2003. Kant, Immanuel. Duties Towards Animals and Spirits† in Lectures on Ethics, trans Louis . New York: The Century Co, 1963. Levinas, Emmanuel. The Name of a Dog, or Natural Rights† in Peter Atterton and Matthew. London: Continuum, 2004. Nitecki, Matthew H. Evolutionary ethics. New York: State Univ. of New York Press, 2003.